Released February 2013. In the following report, Hanover Research presents an assessment of the literature regarding the most effective school start times for elementary, middle, and high school students. We review the actions of school start time change committees and pilot studies to provide profiles of schools that have implemented new start times. The current body of research suggests that later start times for middle and high school students can improve academic performance as well as out-of-school behavior. This report presents the background and benefits of ideal school start times, obstacles for implementing new school start times, and guidelines and models for implementing changes. The research is based on public school systems, but some of the ideas provided can be applicable in a private school setting.
Released November 2012. In the following report, Hanover Research summarizes best practices for implementing a block schedule at the middle school level. To begin, this report discusses the basic tenets of block scheduling and identifies several different block scheduling models. Following this, the report briefly covers several issues related to student instruction and curriculum associated with block scheduling, as well as issues related to the implementation of block scheduling. The report concludes with a discussion of teacher teaming, a practice which has been recommended by a number of educators, researchers, and experts.
Released March 2011. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a federal law that requires each state to ensure that a free appropriate public education (FAPE) is available to all eligible children with disabilities residing in that state. The information in this booklet explains the provisions related to, and benefits available to, children with disabilities who are enrolled by their parents in private schools, including religious schools, when the provision of FAPE is not at issue. In IDEA, these children are often referred to as “parentally placed private school children” with disabilities, and the benefits available to them differ from the benefits for children with disabilities in public schools.
Reprinted October 2005. In the decade since the publication of Prisoners of Time, the report of the National Education Commission on Time and Learning, little has changed regarding time for formal schooling. The length of the school day and the school year are virtually the same today as they were throughout the 20th century. The profound changes Americans have experienced in technology, demographics and the economy have had minimal effect on the time students spend in school. This remains the case even as education leaders implement an education reform agenda focused on standards, assessments and accountability – an agenda that obviously calls for new ways to use time to achieve powerful learning. In the original report, the commission argued that while standards must be held constant, time can vary. It would seem logical that as higher aspirations are held for all children, we would be willing to battle traditional structures and practices. Students’ lives have changed. They live in a digital world. They use the Internet, cell phones and other digital devices to access information and to accelerate communication. For them, time is a resource, not a barrier. We call not only for more learning time, but for all time to be used in new and better ways.
Released June 2005. National studies have included both private and public school teachers in analyses of teacher turnover. These studies have shown that teacher turnover is associated with teacher perceptions of school organizational characteristics, including low levels of administrative support, little input into school decisions, student disciplinary problems, and insufficient salary. Private school teachers generally express less dissatisfaction with school organizational characteristics than do their public school counterparts. However, teacher turnover rates are higher in private schools than in public schools.